Hydro4M2 - world's first orbital class thermal pervaporation demonstrator

Module Render 1 v1

Introducing the Hydro4M2 payload

Hydromars has received funding from the European Space Agency for In-Orbit Demonstration and Validation test onboard Nyx orbital vehicle. The flight mission name is - "Mission Possible".

With the opportunity, we aim to measure the response of our water purification and recovery process whilst in microgravity. 

For this, we are developing the first fully automated space-qualified thermal pervaporation system, designed to survive the rigors of long-term storage, launch, and re-entry.

Facts about Hydro4M2

Hydro4M2 is a drastically scaled-down version of our full-scale product. 

It includes a comprehensive instrumentation and control subsystem with multiple pressure, flow rate, temperature sensors, an in-line conductivity sensor, visual cameras, an accelerometer, a COTS onboard computer, and a proprietary power distribution board. Emphasis has been placed on mitigation of various failure modes.

All of this has been achieved in a small shoebox payload, in <10 months from sketch to flight-ready payload.

Mass 8.1 - 9.9 kg
Dimensions 200 mm x 200 mm x 140mm
Material aluminium 7075
Available power 20 W (average)

Progress timeline

May 2024

Flight PL assembly

Components procured. Unit assembled. Environmental tests scheduled for June.

April 2024

Hydro4M2 OBC + PPB stack

On-board computer and the Power and Peripherals Board have been delivered.

March 2024

Tests on the breadboard model

Extensive tests on the BB model finalized. Procurement is ongoing.

February 2024

Membrane module verification

The flight membrane module has successfully passed structural tests.

January 2024

Team for electrical subsystem

A team of two people for developing the OBC + PPB stack has been established.

December 2023

Membrane module development

The design of the space-grade membrane module in progress. 

November 2023


Components have been identified. Procurement has started. 

August - October 2023

Product concept

Product design, development, testing, and initial verification in progress.

May - June 2023

"Mission Possible"

Hydromars secured a payload flight opportunity from ESA.

Team Hydro4M2


Arjun Monga

Technical Project Leader

Born 1998

Nationality: Indian

Education: M.Sc. in Electromagnetics, Fusion, and Space Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. B.Sc. in Technology, Delhi College of Engineering, India.

Experience/Competence: Aerospace Engineering, Engineering Physics, parabolic microgravity testing, payload engineering for sounding rockets (within REXUS), product development, product testing, assembly, systems integration, and mission analysis.

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Shorena Tsindeliani

Project Management

Born 1991

Nationality: Georgian 

Education: M.Sc. in Health Management, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden. B.Sc. in Business Administration, Caucasus University, Georgia. Executive education in the private space sector and space law.

Experience/Competence: Management positions in private and public sectors within the Baltic Sea region and Europe.

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Miriam Pijak Åslin

Water Process Engineer

Born 1970

Nationality: Swedish 

Education: M.Sc. in Ecotoxicology, Stockholm University, Sweden. B.Sc. in Biologist Program, Linköping University, Sweden.

Experience/Competence: Water treatment, ecotoxicology, biology, and adhesives.

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Alaa Kullab

Chief Water Process Engineer

Born 1977

Nationality: Swedish and Palestinian

Education: Ph.D. in Energy Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden. M.Sc. in Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Infrastructure, KTH, Sweden. B.Sc. in Civil Engineering, Birzeit University, Palestine.

Experience/Competence: Water treatment, environmental engineering, thermal desalination, membrane technologies, environmental management tools, computational fluid dynamics, utility analysis, GMS (groundwater modeling system), construction, maintenance, and water management.

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Bo Bängtsson

Technology Expert and Advisor

Born 1945

Nationality: Swedish

Education: M.Sc. in Engineering Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.

Experience/Competence: Participated in close to 100 cleanroom projects, including Ånsgdtröm Laboratory in Uppsala, most of them for developing or manufacturing microelectronic components. 


Daniele Stella

Payload Software

Born: 2001

Nationality: Italian

Background: M.Sc. in Embedded Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and University of Trento, Italy. B.Sc. in Computer Science, University of Trento, Italy.

Experience/Competence: A Software developer with a focus on Embedded Systems. Well-versed in C and C++. Hands-on experience in STM32 and AVR microcontrollers, coupled with a solid understanding of digital electronics. 

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Axel Boström

Electrical and Electronic Hardware

Born: 2000

Nationality: Swedish

Background: M.Sc. in Embedded Systems, KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering, KTH.

Experience/Competence: Active member of Elab. Has built several completely self-designed projects from keyboards to vacuum tube amplifiers. Excellent skills, among others, in Programming, Operating systems, Software&Tools.


Abhilash Ramachandran

ISRU Engineer

Born 1993

Nationality: Indian

Education: Postdoctoral Researcher, Center for Space and Planetary Sciences, University of Arkansas, USA. Ph.D. in Atmospheric Science with a focus on Mars, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden. Erasmus Mundus Dual M.Sc. in Space Technology and Instrumentation and Astrophysics, Space Science and Planetology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, Julius-Maximilians Universität Würzburg, Germany and Université Paul Sabatier Toulouse III, France. Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) in Industrial Engineering and Management,
Visvesvaraya Technological University, India.

Experience/Competence: Specializes in the design, development, and calibration of scientific instruments for space missions. Expertise involves working on the ESA ExoMars scientific payload HABIT (the first Swedish instrument to be placed on the surface of Mars), an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) instrument to produce liquid water for future Mars exploration. Led the design and testing of a planetary chamber to simulate Mars's atmosphere and conducted experiments to understand the near-surface water cycle - crucial for estimating the efficiency of future water extraction procedures from regolith for ISRU applications.

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Images from the project


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